One of the most important theoretical results in linear programming is that every LP has a corresponding dual program. Where, exactly, this dual comes from can often seem mysterious. Several years ago I answered a question on a couple of Stack Exchange sites giving an intuitive explanation for where the dual comes from. Those posts seem to have been appreciated, so I thought I would reproduce my answer here.
Suppose we have a primal problem as follows.
Now, suppose we want to use the primal’s constraints as a way to find an upper bound on the optimal value of the primal. If we multiply the first constraint by 9, the second constraint by 1, and add them together, we get for the left-hand side and for the right-hand side. Since the first constraint is an equality and the second is an inequality, this implies
But since , it’s also true that , and so
Therefore, 18 is an upper-bound on the optimal value of the primal problem.
Surely we can do better than that, though. Instead of just guessing 9 and 1 as the multipliers, let’s let them be variables. Thus we’re looking for multipliers and to force
Now, in order for this pair of inequalities to hold, what has to be true about and ? Let’s take the two inequalities one at a time.
The first inequality:
We have to track the coefficients of the and variables separately. First, we need the total coefficient on the right-hand side to be at least 5. Getting exactly 5 would be great, but since , anything larger than 5 would also satisfy the inequality for . Mathematically speaking, this means that we need .
On the other hand, to ensure the inequality for the variable we need the total coefficient on the right-hand side to be exactly . Since could be positive, we can’t go lower than , and since could be negative, we can’t go higher than (as the negative value for would flip the direction of the inequality). So for the first inequality to work for the variable, we’ve got to have .
The second inequality:
Here we have to track the and variables separately. The variable comes from the first constraint, which is an equality constraint. It doesn’t matter if is positive or negative, the equality constraint still holds. Thus is unrestricted in sign. However, the variable comes from the second constraint, which is a less-than-or-equal to constraint. If we were to multiply the second constraint by a negative number that would flip its direction and change it to a greater-than-or-equal constraint. To keep with our goal of upper-bounding the primal objective, we can’t let that happen. So the variable can’t be negative. Thus we must have .
Finally, we want to make the right-hand side of the second inequality as small as possible, as we want the tightest upper-bound possible on the primal objective. So we want to minimize .
Putting all of these restrictions on and together we find that the problem of using the primal’s constraints to find the best upper bound on the optimal primal objective entails solving the following linear program:
And that’s the dual.
It’s probably worth summarizing the implications of this argument for all possible forms of the primal and dual. The following table is taken from p. 214 of Introduction to Operations Research, 8th edition, by Hillier and Lieberman. They refer to this as the SOB method, where SOB stands for Sensible, Odd, or Bizarre, depending on how likely one would find that particular constraint or variable restriction in a maximization or minimization problem.
Primal Problem Dual Problem
(or Dual Problem) (or Primal Problem)
Sensible <= constraint paired with nonnegative variable
Odd = constraint paired with unconstrained variable
Bizarre >= constraint paired with nonpositive variable
Sensible nonnegative variable paired with >= constraint
Odd unconstrained variable paired with = constraint
Bizarre nonpositive variable paired with <= constraint